Ethical dilemmas during a pandemic essay
The Spanish flu was not a normal epidemic, it was a dangerous pandemic. Guided by these principles, ethicists can assist pandemic planning by recognizing and raising awareness of the values that are embedded in technical decisions and by promoting an ethical process of decision making.
The 2 In our pandemic influenza work at WHO, each of these four topics is being addressed by a working group, which met once together in May but which mostly have been operating separately as virtual committees.
Applying these hard-learned lessons, the smallpox program took advantage of available resources in host countries, adopted broad goals that could be achieved in multiple ways, and supported a wide range of clinical, epidemiological, and operational research.
In order to pursue its primary goal of strengthening pandemic preparedness in each country within the region, PAHO has conducted a series of planning workshops for national representatives, followed by tabletop simulation exercises see Mujica et al.
When to launch a vaccine development process for influenza
Here the question is whether it is appropriate for a country to release scarce supplies of vaccine or other treatment to a second country when that second country is experiencing a pandemic, instead of holding on to the supplies for possible use by its own population. Summarize i. Mujica also said he had observed a tendency toward greater acceptance of the IHR , as national governments gained a greater appreciation of how global disease transmission and trade are interconnected. The third principle is the principle of fairness, which is usually formulated in a formal manner as treating like cases alike. The difference of opinion arises not from any disagreement over what the outcomes of the two choices would be but rather from a disagreement about which factors are important in judging ethical actions or about the weights that should be accorded to the various factors. Participants noted that sound science is essential to the creation and continuous improvement of disease models. Another allocation issue involves the distribution of risks rather than benefits. Floods, 2. Zika c. Furthermore, while it is possible that during a pandemic a sufficient number of health-care workers will volunteer to put themselves at risk for the benefit of the community, this cannot be guaranteed, and thus it may be necessary for states or professional organizations to mandate worker conduct. The navigator exchange of crops affected each the recent World and therefore the New. Another, more contemporary statement of the principles that should guide health professionals was set forth in the Belmont Report, produced in as the capstone of the work of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. Overall people responded to the pandemic in different ways through commitment to the task, consulting religion, avoiding contact with others, and the effort to raise public health awareness. Ethicists at that agency have suggested a number of principles, including transparency, sound science, global involvement, and procedural justice, as a foundation for legal decision making and have also identified certain ethical issues, such as allocation of countermeasures and restrictions on freedom, that are inherently part of pandemic planning and response CDC,
Sections of the workshop summary not specifically attributed to an individual reflect the views of the rapporteurs and not those of the Forum on Microbial Threats, its sponsors, or the IOM.
The first is the principle of utility, that is, acting so as to produce the greatest good. Whereas a deontologist says that people should act so as to fulfill their duties to others, a consequentialist says that a person should act in the way that produces the best outcome.
The revised IHR will come into full effect in Julybut at the request of the World Health Assembly, WHO is prepared to implement the revisions sooner if an influenza pandemic should materialize before that date.
People wore masks if they went outside. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it is almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract.
What type planning in advance of the use of quarantine measures should public health engage in
It also covers three influenza pandemics: the Spanish flu of , the Asian flu, the Hong Kong flu and the terror and heartbreak left behind in their wakes. But transparency is not enough, Capron said. Recognizing Relevant Ethical Principles Discussions on these four topics by WHO and its consultants 2 have produced agreement on several basic principles that should underlie planning for and responses to a pandemic. However, supplies are limited, and hospitals across the country are independently making decisions about how to govern the allocation of such antivirals within their own institution. As is the case for any distribution of scarce resources, the assignment of priorities for influenza vaccination involves, in addition to scientific and administrative considerations, implicit and explicit value judgments Kotalik, There is also a principle of participation—that is, that the stakeholders should be involved, through appropriate institutions and means, in the processes of formulating the objectives and adopting the policies. The answer to this question in turn rests on what one thinks about two questions regarding justice. Many of the proposed disease mitigation strategies may have unintended—and often undesirable—consequences, such as adverse economic effects or the restriction of civil rights and civil liberties. The recognition of a new generation of vaccines currently under development for use against anthrax and smallpox and possibly influenza led some participants to question the substantial U. And, as a practical matter, the results of such a decision may also be more widely acceptable even if the decision itself is not popular with many people. Tamiflu is the only drug that may effectively reduce mortality of ill patients and limit infection of exposed persons. Four Areas of Ethical Concern The first area of concern is equitable access to health care in a pandemic.
The emergence of a new and completely different influenza virus to infect people will cause an influenza pandemic. Philosophers such as Norman Daniels have written a good deal about the characteristics of fair process, which is an aspect of justice that is particularly relevant in situations where it is difficult to achieve wide social agreement on the substantive implications.
More broadly, the question is how health-care resources in general should be allocated, both before and during the pandemic, between the needs of the influenza effort and other health needs.
based on 102 review