For Boyd, transformation is a "fundamental change in one's personality involving [together] the resolution of a personal dilemma and the expansion of consciousness resulting in greater personality integration".
New York: Association. This can be done with partners, small groups, or through direct interaction between student and instructor. Both teachers and faculty participating in the program were transformed as beliefs were challenged and knowledge was co-constructed throughout the experience.
By using Mezirow's work, along with Robert Kegan's constructive developmental theoryKligyte found the following themes: a move from non-reflective habitual action to a more conscious practice; a change in perspective to a more sophisticated view of teaching; an increased sense of agency, including the concept that academic practice is an object which can be controlled and shaped, rather than something externally imposed; increased confidence to take risks and experiment; and a more multifaceted idea of what it means to be an academic.
Understanding transformation theory. You can design critical reflection into formal courses by asking participants to respond to questions through blogging and other internal social tools.
While the learning process is certainly rational on some levels, it is also a profound experience that can be described as a spiritual or emotional transformation as well. Some studies support Mezirow.